Synthesis of well-defined polymeric structures using ATRPS has been reported in a number of early publications. This method is robust and versatile in its capability to yield controlled chain growth and to achieve many different forms of polymers, including hyperbranched polymers, star-shaped polymers, and block copolymers. Moreover, several groups have recently reported the use of ATRP method for the “grafting from” of polymer brushes which have great potential in fabrication of medical devices and surface-modified nanoparticles. Compared to the “grafting through” method, “grafting from” polymerizations result in brush copolymers with high molecular weight side chains. In addition, this approach does not require the synthesis of a macromonomer, which is the most difficult step in the “grafting through” process.
The detection of nucleic acids in various solutions, including complex biological environments, has been the focus of many research groups who are trying to develop fast and reliable detection mechanisms of nucleic acid based disease biomarkers. Among the most significant nucleic acid biomarkers that have recently been discovered are microRNAs. The develop- ment of simple and effective diagnostic devices based on disease biomarkers such as microRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins have excelled in recent years. The detection of nucleic acids in solution provides simplicity but lacks the specificity and sensitivity offered by traditional surface based assays especially with regards to detection in complex biological environments, such as serum or blood. Aied etl al. presents a way to make the detection of DNA hybridization with out modifying the sample in any way. This system is capable of identifying DNA hybridization in serum on the basis of a combination of mechanisms omposed of polymer- ssDNA probe interaction, ssDNA-cDNA (cDNA) hybridization and finally, PicoGreen intercalation. By fluorescence they were able to identify DNA hybridization.
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Ahmed Aied, Yu Zheng. DNA Immobilization and Detection on Cellulosa Paper using a Surface Grown Cationic Polymer via ATRP. ACS: Applied Material & Interfaces. 4. 2012. 826-831.